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中文
Chao Liu

Professor
Supervisor of Doctorate Candidates
Supervisor of Master's Candidates


Gender:Male
Alma Mater:HKUST
Degree:Doctor
Status:Employed
School/Department:Microelectronics
Discipline:Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics
Business Address:Room 302, Block 3B, Software Park Campus, Shandong University, Jinan, China
E-Mail:chao.liu@sdu.edu.cn
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Chao Liu received the Ph.D Degree in electrical and computer engineering from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) in 2016. From 2016 to 2019, he worked in Institute of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland as a Scientist/post-doc. He is currently a professor in school of microelectronics, Shandong University, China. 


His research interest is at the intersection of wide-bandgap semiconductors, power electronic devices, opto-electronic devices, and their monolithic integration. At EPFL, he worked on“III-Nitride Nanostructures for Energy-Efficient Devices”supported by the European Horizon 2020 program. He reported the world's first GaN-on-Si vertical transistor and developed GaN-on-Si vertical Schottky barrier diode with the highest breakdown voltage and the smallest turn-on voltage. He unveiled the possibility of integrating a vertical freewheeling Schottky barrier diode into the vertical GaN transistor. In his Ph.D. dissertation, “Monolithic integration of III-nitride devices by selective epitaxial growth”, he designed and fabricated a micro-electro-optical transceiver system with bi-directional optical communication functionality. This is the first time a monolithically integrated GaN transceiver system with superior performance has been demonstrated, bringing great potential to a variety of applications, such as visible light communication with efficient voltage-controlled drivers and opto-isolator for integrated GaN power ICs. His early research topic is related to the droop problem in blue LEDs, a long-standing impediment for the development of energy-efficient GaN LEDs. Additionally, he conducted a study of semi-polar GaN nanostructures on low-cost silicon substrates, which can potentially be utilized as a platform for a variety of high-end optoelectronic and electronic devices.  


He has co-authored over 60 papers in top-notch international journals and conferences (including APL, OL, OE, IEEE EDL, IEEE PTL, IEEE TED, ISPSD, etc), among which one paper was picked by the editor as influential papers in APL, one paper was selected as cover paper in IEEE EDL, and one paper has been the top 5 most popular papers in IEEE EDL since Jun. 2018. His research works have been cited over 1000 times by renowned scholars and world leading semiconductor companies as well as featured in industry magazines Compound Semiconductor, Semiconductor Today, and IEEE Spectrum. He serves as a reviewer for over 10 international journals and was selected as an outstanding reviewer by JCG in 2018.  


Academic Experience:

2019-           Professor, School of Microelectronics, Shandong University (SDU)

2016-2019   Scientist/post-doc in Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), advisor: Prof. Elison Matioli

2012-2016   Ph.D. in Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), advisior:Prof. Kei May Lau


Research Area:

Wide-bandgap semiconductors, Power electronics, Solid state/Smart lighting, Monolithic device integration, Selective area epitaxy, MOCVD


Publications:

  • 45 peer-reviewed journal papers 

  • 18 peer-reviewed conference papers

  • Google Scholar Citations: 1344, h-index: 23, i-10 index: 33


Openings:

  • We are always looking for highly motivated master/PhD students, and Postdocs to work on III-Nitride semiconductors for power electronics and smart lighting applications.

  • The successful candidate will join the laboratory of Professor Chao Liu, and will focus on some of the following topics: MOCVD growth, simulation, cleanroom fabrication and characterization of III-Nitride materials and devices.

  • The candidate will have the opportunity of doing high-level research in a top-ranked engineering school, working closely with the professor as well as getting experience in building a laboratory and leading students.


Publications:


67. Xuyang Liu, Sihao Chen, Hang Chen, Yingbin Qiu, and Chao Liu*, Analytical Model and Design Strategy for GaN Vertical Floating Island Schottky Diodes, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 69, 3079, 2022

66. Heng Wang, Sihao Chen, Hang Chen,  and Chao Liu*,  Comprehensive Design and Numerical Study of GaN Vertical MPS Diodes towards Alleviated Electric Field Crowding and Efficient Carrier Injection, IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society, 10, 504, 2022

65. Yongchen Ji, Mengran Liu, and Chao Liu*, Alleviated built-in electric field in the active region of AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes with locally embedded p-i-n junctions, Applied Optics, 61, 6961, 2022

64. Mengran Liu, and Chao Liu*, Enhanced Carrier Injection in AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-emitting Diodes by Polarization Engineering at the LQB/p-EBL Interface, IEEE Photonics Journal, 14, 8228005, 2022

63. Jian Yin, Sihao Chen, Hang Chen, Shuti Li, Houqiang Fu*, and Chao Liu*, Design space of GaN Vertical Trench Junction Barrier Schottky Diodes: Comprehensive Study and Analytical Modeling, Electronics, 11, 1972, 2022

62. Congcong Deng, Fei Chen,Chao Liu,Qing Liu,Kai Chen,Can Zou,Zixuan Zhao,Yu Zhu,Xingfu Wang, Fangliang Gao*, Shuti Li*, Realization of specific localized surface plasmon resonance in Au-modified Ni nanoplasmonics for efficient detection,Applied Surface Science, 586, 152288, 2022

61. Sihao Chen, Hang Chen, Yingbin Qiu, and Chao Liu*, Systematic Design and Parametric Analysis of GaN Vertical Trench MOS Barrier Schottky Diode with p-GaN Shielding Rings, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 68, 5707, 2021

60. Mengran Liu, Yongchen Ji, Hang Zhou, Changsheng Xia, Zihui Zhang, and Chao Liu*,  Sheet charge engineering towards an efficient hole injection in 290 nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes, IEEE Photonics Journal, 13, 8200308, 2021

59. Yu Zhang, Chao Liu, Min Zhu,Yuliang Zhang, Xinbo Zou*, A review on GaN-based two-terminal devices grown on Si substrates, Journal of Alloys and Componds, 869, 159214, 2021

58. Riyaz Abdul Khadar, Alessandro Floriduz , Chao Liu, Reza Soleimanzadeh, and Elison Matioli, Quasi-vertical GaN-on-Si reverse blocking power MOSFETs, Applied Physics Express, 14, 046503, 2021

57. Riyaz Abdul Khadar*, Chao Liu, Reza Soleimanzadeh, and Elison Matioli*, Fully-vertical GaN-on-Si power MOSFETs, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 40, 443, 2019, featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today"

56. Chao Liu*, Riyaz Abdul Khadar, and Elison Matioli*, Vertical GaN-on-Si MOSFETs with Monolithically Integrated Freewheeling Schottky Barrier Diodes, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 39, 1034, 2018 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" on 29th, June, 2018) (The top 5 most popular papers since Jun. 2018)

55. Chao Liu*, Riyaz Abdul Khadar, and Elison Matioli*, GaN-on-Silicon Quasi-Vertical Power MOSFETs, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 39, 71, 2018 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" on 18th, January 2018)(feature article)

54. Chao Liu*, Riyaz Abdul Khadar, and Elison Matioli*, 645 V Quasi-Vertical GaN Power Transistors on silicon substrates, 30th IEEE International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD), Chicago, USA, May 13-17, 2018

53. Chao Liu*, Riyaz Abdul Khadar, and Elison Matioli*, Vertical GaN-on-Si MOSFET with Monolithically Integrated Freewheeling Schottky Barrier Diode, Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Boston, USA, May 29 - June 1, 2018

52. Riyaz Abdul Khadar*, Chao Liu, Liyang Zhang, Peng Xiang, Kai Cheng and Elison Matioli*, 820 V GaN-on-Si Quasi-Vertical P-i-N Diodes with BFOM of 2.0 GW/cm2, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 39, 401, 2018 (editor's pick, featured on cover)

51. Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Kar Wei Ng, Chak Wah Tang, and Kei May Lau*, High Performance AlGaN/GaN/Si Power MOSHEMTs with ZrO2 Gate Dielectric, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 12, 5337, 2018

50. Yuefei Cai, Xinbo Zou, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, Voltage-controlled GaN HEMT-LED Devices as Fast-Switching and Dimmable Light Emitters, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 39, 224, 2018 (featured by IEEE Spectrum)

49. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, Huaxing Jiang, and Kei May Lau*, Monolithic integration of III-nitride voltage-controlled light emitters with dual-wavelength photodiodes by selective-area epitaxy, Optics Letters, 43, 3401, 2018

48. Xing Lu*, Chao Liu, Huaxing Jiang, Xinbo Zou, and Kei May Lau, High-Performance Monolithically Integrated GaN Driving VMOSFET on LED, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 38, 752, 2017 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" 28 April 2017)

47. Jie Ren*, Chao Liu, Chak Wah Tang, Kei May Lau, and Johnny K.O. Sin, A Novel Si-GaN Monolithic Integration Technology for a High-Voltage Cascoded Diode, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 38, 501, 2017 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" on 22th, February 2017)

46. Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Xing Lu, Yuying Chen, Chak Wah Tang, and Kei May Lau*, Investigation of In-situ SiN as Gate Dielectric and Surface Passivation for GaN MISHEMTs, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 64, 832, 2017

45. Jie Ren*, Chao Liu, Yuying Chen, Chak Wah Tang, Kei May Lau, and Johnny K.O. Sin, Switching characteristics of monolithically integrated Si- GaN cascoded rectifiers, 29th IEEE International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD), Royton Sapporo, Sapporo, Japan, May 28–June 1, 2017

44. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, Xinbo Zou, and Kei May Lau*, Low-leakage High-breakdown Laterally Integrated HEMT-LED via n-GaN Electrode, IEEE Photonics Technology Letter, 28, 1130, 2016 (featured by IEEE Spectrum)

43. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, Huaxing Jiang, and Kei May Lau*, Optimization of a common buffer platform for monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light- emitting diodes and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, Journal of Electronic Materials, 45, 2092, 2016

42. Xing Lu*, Chao Liu, Huaxing Jiang, Xinbo Zou, Anping Zhang, and Kei May Lau, Monolithic Integration of Enhancement-mode Vertical Driving Transistors on a Standard InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diode Structure, Applied Physics Letters, 109, 053504, 2016

41. Xing Lu*, Chao Liu, Huaxing Jiang, Xinbo Zou, Anping Zhang, and Kei May Lau, Ultralow Reverse Leakage Current in AlGaN/GaN Lateral Schottky Barrier Diodes Grown on Bulk GaN Substrate, Applied Physics Express, 9, 031001, 2016 (featured by online magazine "Compound Semiconductor" in Vol. 22, issue, 3, April/May, 2016)

40. Xing Lu, Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Xinbo Zou, and Kei May Lau*, Off-state leakage current reduction in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by combining surface treatment and post-gate annealing, Semiconductor Science and Technology, a31, 055019, 2016

39. Huaxing Jiang, Xing Lu, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau, Off‐state drain leakage reduction by post metallization annealing for Al2O3/GaN/AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs on Si, Physica status solidi (a), 213, 868, 2016

38. Yuefei Cai, Xinbo Zou, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau, Voltage-Controlled Light Modulation Enabled by Monolithically Integrated HEMT-LED Device, International workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN 2016), Orlando, USA, October 2-7, 2016

37. Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Xing Lu, and Kei May Lau*, High Voltage Low Current Collapse AlGaN/GaN MISHEMTs with in-situ SiN Gate Dielectric, Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Toyama, Japan, Jun 26-30, 2016

36. Tongde Huang*, Chao Liu, Johan Bergsten, Huaxing Jiang, Kei May Lau, and Niklas Rorsman, Fabrication and Improved Performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with Regrown Ohmic Contacts and Passivation-First Process, Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Toyama, Japan, Jun 26-30, 2016

35. Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Xing Lu, and Kei May Lau*, Effective suppression of Current collapse in AlGaN/GaN MISHEMTs using in-situ SiN gate dielectric and PECVD SiN passivation, International Conference on Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology (CSMANTECH), Miami, Florida, USA, May 16-19, 2016

34. Kun Yu, Chao Liu, Huaxing Jiang, Xing Lu, Kei May Lau, and Anping Zhang, Investigation of the interface traps and current collapse in LPCVD SiNx/AlGaN/GaN MISHEMTs, International Conference on Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology (CS MANTECH), Miami, Florida, USA, May 16-19, 2016

33. Chao Liu, Huaxing Jiang, Yuefei Cai, and Kei May Lau*, Monolithically integrated GaN-based HEMT-LED and InGaN/GaN photodiodes for on-chip optical interconnects, Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Toyama, Japan, Jun 26-30, 2016

32. Xing Lu, Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau, Improved performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by O2-plasma and HCl surface treatment, 11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, Aug 30 - Sep, 4, 2015

31. Xing Lu, Jun Ma, Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Peiqiang Xu and Kei May Lau*, Fabrication and Characterization of Gate-Last Self-Aligned AlN/GaN MISHEMTs With In Situ SiNx Gate Dielectric, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 62, 1862, 2015

30. Huaxing Jiang, Xing Lu, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau, Off-state Drain Leakage Reduction by Post Metallization Annealing for Al2O3/GaN/AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs on Silicon, Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW), Santa Barbara, California, USA, June 2015

29. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, and Kei May Lau*, Enhanced optical performance of monolithically integrated HEMT-LED by buffer optimization, 11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, Aug 30 - Sep, 4, 2015

28. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, Zhaojun Liu, Jun Ma, and Kei May Lau*, Buffer optimization of monolithically integrated HEMT-LED using a metal- interconnection-free scheme, 57th Electronic Materials Conference (EMC),Columbus, Ohio, USA, Jun 24-26, 2015

27. Chao Liu, Yuefei Cai, Zhaojun Liu, Jun Ma, and Kei May Lau*, Metal-interconnection-free integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, Applied Physics Letters, 106, 181110, 2015 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" on 20th, May 2015) (Influential Papers picked by editor, July, 2015)

26. Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, Xing Lu, and Kei May Lau, Control of threshold voltage in ultrathin-barrier AlGaN/GaN based MISHEMTs with low-frequency SiNx gate dielectric and Al2O3 interfacial layer, 11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, Aug 30 - Sep, 4, 2015

25. Jie Ren, Chao Liu, Kei May Lau, and Johnny K. O. Sin, Effect of high-temperature thermal treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Epi for monolithic integration, 11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, Aug 30 - Sep, 4, 2015

24. Chao Liu, Zhaojun Liu, Tongde Huang, Jun Ma, and Kei May Lau*, Improved breakdown characteristics of monolithically integrated III-nitride HEMT- LED devices using carbon doping, Journal of Crystal Growth, 414, 243, 2015

23. Chao Liu, Zhiwei Ren, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Xingfu Wang, Shuti Li*, Reduced droop effect in nitride light emitting diodes by taper shaped electron blocking layer, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 26,1368, 2014

22. Chao Liu, Zhiwei Ren, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Xingfu Wang, Yian Yin, Shuti Li*, Study of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with step-graded electron blocking layer, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 26,134, 2014

21. Xing Lu, Jun Ma, Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, Low trap states in in-situ SiNx/AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, Applied Physics Letters, 105, 102911, 2014

20. Chao Liu, Zhaojun Liu, Tongde Huang, Jun Ma, and Kei May Lau*, Improved breakdown characteristics of monolithically integrated III-nitride HEMT- LED devices using carbon doping, 17th International Conference on Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (ICMOVPE), Lausanne, Switzerland, July 13- 18, 2014

19. Jun Ma, Xing Lu, Huaxing Jiang, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, In situ growth of SiNx as gate dielectric and surface passivation for AlN/GaN heterostructures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, Applied Physics Express, 7, 091002, 2014

18. Zhaojun Liu, Tongde Huang, Jun Ma, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, Monolithic Integration of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on LEDs (HEMT-LEDs) by MOCVD, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 35, 330, 2014

17. Zhaojun Liu, Jun Ma, Tongde Huang, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors, Applied Physics Letters, 104,091103, 2014 (featured by online magazine "Semiconductor Today" on 21st, Mar, 2014)

16. Jun Ma, Xing Lu, Tongde Huang, Chao Liu, and Kei May Lau*, Improved buffer resistivity for GaN-based HEMTs using a medium-temperature and low-pressure GaN insertion layer, 17th International Conference on Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (ICMOVPE), Lausanne, Switzerland, July 13-18, July, 2014

15. Xingfu Wang,Yong Zhang,Xinman Chen,Miao He, Chao Liu, Yian Yin, Xianshao Zou and Shuti Li*, Ultrafast, super high gain visible-blind UV detector and optical logic gates based on nonpolar a-axial GaN nanowire, Nanoscale, 6, 12009, 2014

14. Danwei Li, Jiasheng Diao, Xiangjing Zhuo, Jun Zhang, Xingfu Wang, Chao Liu, Bijun Zhao, Kai Li, Lei Yu, Yuanwen Zhang, Miao He, and Shuti Li*, High quality crack-free GaN film grown on Si (111) substrate without AlN interlayer, Journal of crystal growth, 47, 58, 2014

13. Xingfu Wang, Jinhui Tong, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Zhiwei Ren, Danwei Li, Xiangjing Zhuo, Jun Zhang, Hanxiang Yi, Chao Liu, Fang Fang and Shuti Li*, Highly ordered GaN-based nanowire arrays grown on patterned (100) silicon and their optical properties, Chemical Communications, 50, 682, 2014

12. Zhiwei Ren, Chao Liu, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Xinfu Wang, Jinhui Tong, Jun Zhang, Xiangjing Zhuo, Danwei Li, Hanxiang Yi and Shuti Li*, Enhanced performance of InGaN/GaN based solar cells with an In0.05Ga0.95N ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barrier and In0.2Ga0.8N well, Optics Express, 21, 7118, 2013

11. Chao Liu, Zhiwei Ren, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Xingfu Wang, Yian Yin, Shuti Li*, Advantage of an InGaN based light emitting diodes with p-InGaN/p- GaN superlattice hole accumulation layer, Chinese Physics B, 22, 058502, 2013

10. Chao Liu, Taiping Lu, Lejuan Wu, Hailong Wang, Yian Yin, Guowei Xiao, Yugang Zhou, and Shuti Li*, Enhanced Performance of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes with InGaN/GaN Superlattice as Hole Gathering Layer, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 24, 1239, 2012

9. Jinhui Tong, Shuti Li*, Taiping Lu, Chao Liu, Hailong Wang, Lejuan Wu, Bijun Zhao, Xingfu Wang, and Xin Chen, Efficiency enhancement of InGaN based blue light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multilayer barriers, Chinese Physics B, 21,118502, 2012

8. Taiping Lu, Shuti Li*, Chao Liu, Kang Zhang, Yiqin Xu, Jinhui Tong, Lejuan Wu, Hailong Wang, Xiaodong Yang, Yian Yin, Guowei Xiao, and Yugang Zhou, Advantages of GaN based light-emitting diodes with a p-InGaN hole reservoir layer, Applied Physics Letters, 100, 141106, 2012

7. Lejuan Wu, Shuti Li*, Chao Liu, Tai-Ping Lu, Guo-Wei Xiao, Yu-Gang Zhou, Yi-An Yin, Simulation study of blue InGaN multiple quantum wells light- emitting diodes withdifferent hole injection layer, Chinese Physics B, 21, 068506, 2012

6. Chao Liu, Taiping Lu, Zhiwei Ren, Xin Chen, Bijun Zhao, Yian Yin, Jinhui Tong, and Shuti Li*, Study of blue InGaN multiple quantum well light- emitting diodes with p-type quantum barriers, Asian Communication and Photonics Conference (ACP), Guangzhou, China, Nov 7-10, 2012

5. Taiping Lu, Shuti Li*, Kang Zhang, Chao Liu, Guowei Xiao, Yugang Zhou, Shu-Wen Zheng, Yi-An Yin, Le-Juan Wu, Hai-Long Wang, and Xiao-Dong Yang, Simulation study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with dip-shaped quantum wells, Chinese Physics B, 20, 108504, 2011

4. Taiping Lu, Shuti Li*, Kang Zhang, Chao Liu, Yi-An Yin, Le-Juan Wu, Hai-Long Wang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Guo-Wei Xiao, and Yu-Gang Zhou, Effect of the thickness of undoped GaN interlayers between multiple quantum wells and the p-doped layer on the performance of GaN light-emitting diodes, Optics Express, 19,18319, 2011

3. Taiping Lu, Shuti Li*, Kang Zhang, Chao Liu, Guowei Xiao, Yugang Zhou, Shu-Wen Zheng, Yi-An Yin, Le-Juan Wu, Hai-Long Wang, and Xiao-Dong Yang, The advantage of blue InGaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes with p-AlInN electron blocking layer, Chinese Physics B, 20, 098503, 2011

2. Shuti Li*, Chao Liu, Guo-Guang Ye, Guo-Wei Xiao, Yu-Gang Zhou, Jun Su, Guang-Han Fan, Yong Zhang, Fu-Bo Liang and Shu-Wen Zheng. Study of GaP single crystal layers grown on GaN by MOCVD, Materials Research Bulletin, 46,1942, 2011

1. Shuti Li*, Jun Su, Guanghan Fan, Chao Liu, Jian-Xing Cao, Yi-An Yin, GaP: Mg layers grown on GaN by MOCVD, Journal of Crystal Growth, 312,3101, 2010


  • email : chao.liu@sdu.edu.cn